Intelligent design is the belief among some scientists that all the evidence provided by science leads to only one realistic conclusion: there must be a creator of the universe.
One of the primary reasons for this spreading concept is the fact that the parameters of physics are so finely tuned to perfection that modifying them even slightly would have resulted in the universe not existing.
Modifying values like the strength of gravity would make it impossible for the universe to have even existed, not to mention life on Earth. The beginning of life is itself a prevalent unanswered question of science, but we are talking about the very existence of the entire universe and its hundreds of billions of galaxies.
Some of the narrowly defined values of physics used to support the idea of intelligent design include: strength of gravity, the perfect ratio of protons and neutrons, the speed of the expanding universe, the weight of specific elements, the ratio of proton mass to neutron mass, the strength of electromagnetic force, the strength of nuclear force, and the overall characteristics of the beginning state of the universe (aka Big Bang).
The following is a list of these finely tuned characteristics, and what would happen if they were modified even slightly:
Strength of Gravity
Gravity is the primary force responsible for the creation of stars and galaxies, as well as responsible for keeping us circling the sun and from flying off the Earth into space.
Gravity is also behind the energy produced by stars from the crushing of basic elements. If the strength of gravity was a little stronger, then stars would be too hot and burn up too quickly for life to have formed. If gravity was much more stronger, it would have been too strong for the universe to expand like it does. If the strength of gravity was weaker, stars would be too cool to produce heavy elements (like carbon necessary for life). If gravity was much more weaker, then it would be too weak to allow for the creation of stars or galaxies.
Perfect Ratio of Protons and Neutrons
The ratio of protons and neutrons affects gravity, which if the ratio was more or less it would result in electromagnetism exceeding gravitational forces. This would result in the universe not existing; there would be no galaxies, stars, or planets.
Speed of the Expanding Universe
The speed that the universe is expanding is finely tuned, to the point that if it was expanding much slower, the universe would have collapsed on itself before it formed stars. If the universe was expanding much faster, then it would be too fast for gravity to allow galaxies to develop.
Weight of Specific Elements Like Carbon
Certain elements, like carbon, must weigh within a certain range in order to serve their appropriate functions for life. If the weight of carbon was much different, we either wouldn't have enough oxygen or enough carbon to support life.
Ratio of Proton Mass to Neutron Mass
If the ratio of proton to neutron mass was more or less, there wouldn't be the necessary chemical bonding for life.
Strength of Electromagnetic Force
Electromagnetic force allows for chemical bonding (atoms can have positive and negative charges), which if stronger or weaker it would not allow for the necessary chemical bonding for life.
Strength of Nuclear Force
Two of the most basic elements that are the building blocks for all other elements are hydrogen and helium. If the strength of nuclear force was stronger, it would have resulted in either too much hydrogen (a main building-block of all atoms) or hydrogen not being able to be formed at all. If the strength of nuclear force was weaker, there would have been no elements except hydrogen and helium, with not enough helium.
Characteristics of the Beginning State of the Universe (Big Bang)
All of these characteristics of universe had to be perfect at the beginning of the universe, meaning that the beginning state of the universe needed to be exactly right for our existence.
These characteristics of the universe are only a few of the perfectly fine-tuned constants that allow for the universe to exist, as well as life. Much of this information comes from A Just Right Universe, although this information is widely available elsewhere.
As mentioned, these kinds of narrowly defined characteristics of physics have led some scientists to believe that the only logical possibility is that the universe was intelligently designed.
Whether or not evolution is true is
beside the point. Either way, evolution or not, the universe
couldn't have existed unless someone made it as perfect as it is.
Most scientists look at these ridiculously narrow values and think
"Wow, what luck." Other scientists think that the universe
is too perfect for luck, and in reality it is too perfect for blind chance.
Although, regarding evolution, it is actually not scientific at all, based on the scientific method. By definition, Evolution is a Belief.